Azure Vnet | Subnet | Routing | Public IP Address | Azure Networking | Network Security | VPN | CDN | Azure Vnet Peering | NSG | ExpressRoute | BGP | Application Security Group (ASG) | Azure Front Door | Azure Load Balancer
In Gartner’s latest Magic Quadrant report, Azure was ranked as the second most dominant cloud provider for Infrastructure as a Service. What does this mean? There are a lot of companies looking for Azure certified professionals. Here at Thinkcloudly, we can set you up for your next Azure interview! Welcome to this blog on top 21 Azure Networking Interview Questions You Need to Know Before Your Next Interview.
When it comes to Microsoft Azure jobs or the Microsoft Azure Architect Exam Az-305, I always advise my students to focus on Microsoft Azure Networking Solutions. Students need to have a comprehensive understanding of Azure Networking Solutions, including hybrid networking, routing, connectivity, security, and private access to Azure Services. To clear any Azure networking interview, you will need expertise in Azure administration, networking, hybrid connections, and network security.
Let’s get started with top 21 Azure Networking Interview Questions and Answers
1) What is Azure Virtual Network?
Azure Virtual Cloud enables you to build, deploy and manage applications in a cloud environment. It also offers various management features such as load balancing, firewalls, and VPN connections. One of the key features of Azure Virtual Cloud is its virtual network. A virtual network allows you to create a secure virtual private network using just a few clicks. This allows your data to stay safe while allowing your employees or partners access only when they need it.
The VNet represents your own network in the cloud, making it so you are able to isolate your data and web server if need be.
2) Why should I use Azure Virtual network?
Azure Virtual network is a service that provides you with all the necessary components for creating and managing a virtual private network (VPN) for your applications. It’s perfect for use in remote or disconnected environments because it will allow you to securely connect your application over the internet, regardless of where it’s located. This type of solution is particularly useful when you’re managing multiple applications across different geographical locations.
3) Name some scenarios that you can accomplish with a virtual network (Vnet).
Some of the key scenarios we can accomplish using a virtual network include:
- Communication of Azure resources with the internet
- Communication between Azure resources
- Communication with on-premises resources
- Filtering network traffic
- Routing network traffic
- Integration with Azure services.
4) What is inbound and outbound connections in Azure?
Inbound and outbound connections are two different types of connection that you can use when configuring a load balancer.
Inbound connections refer to the incoming traffic on your URL or IP address.
Outbound connections refer to the traffic leaving your load balancer, which will be going out on a specific URL or IP address.
5) What is Azure Subnet?
Azure subnets provide network isolation, enabling you to create a virtual network that is logically isolated from other virtual networks in the same region.
The three types of subnets are: public, private and hybrid.
1. Public subnets are available on a first come, first served basis and should be used for workloads that do not require any additional security configuration such as firewalls or access control lists.
2. Private subnets offer an additional layer of security by separating traffic between resources based on need-to-know criteria.
3. A hybrid model provides customers with the benefits of both public and private models.
6) What is azure Vnet Peering?
Azure VNET peering is a way for virtual networks in different regions to communicate with each other. When you create a VNET in one region and want it to be able to communicate with another region’s VNET, you can set up the VNETs for peering. This is useful if you have workloads that need continuous access from the on-premises network and the public internet, but you don’t want to set up a VPN connection between your two data centers.
7) What is Azure Micro-Segmentation?
Subnets form the smallest unit of a network based on IP addresses, but you can further segment your network by creating Network Security Groups (NSGs). A network security group contains rules for allowing and denying traffic to and from destinations.
You can associate zero or one NSG to each subnet in a virtual network. You can associate the same, or a different, network security group to each subnet.
8) What is NSG?
NSG is a network security group that defines your firewall rules for inbound and outbound traffic. NSG can be applied at either the subnet level or the virtual machine level. NSGs are typically used when you need to configure different access policies for different sets of VMs within a single subnet. For example, you might want one set of VMs with access to the internet, while another set of VMs has no internet access.
9) Explain (NSG) network security group rules.
A network security group is a set of rules that defines the traffic allowed in and out of an Azure virtual machine. Network security groups are applied at the subnet level and allow you to control the traffic for your entire set of virtual machines without having to modify individual security settings on each one.
You can add additional rules other than the default ones by specifying:
- Protocol (Any, TCP, UDP)
- Source (Any, IP Addresses, Service tag)
- Destination (Any, IP Addresses, Virtual Network)
- Action (Allow or Deny)
Azure sets the default settings in your network security groups and cannot be modified; you can override these default settings by changing the priority order of your rules.
- Action (Allow or Deny)
10) What are the types of Azure Vnet Peering?
Azure Vnet peering is a service that enables you to connect two virtual networks on different Azure regions and maintain the same IP address space. This allows for the cross-region communication between applications, workloads, and other resources.
There are three types of Vnet peering: Private Vnet Peering, Transit Vnet Peering, and Hybrid Vnet Peering.
Private Vnet Peering is designed for highly available applications that cannot tolerate latency or packet loss. It provides private connectivity across any number of Azure regions with no routing hops.
Transit Vnet Peering is also designed for highly available applications that can’t tolerate latency or packet loss but does allow routing hops. It provides connectivity across any number of Azure regions with only one routing hop.
Hybrid Vnet Peering is designed for hybrid cloud scenarios where an application spans both on-premises infrastructure as well as Azure resources.
11) What is Azure ExpressRoute?
Azure ExpressRoute is a service that lets you create an over-the-top, private connection between your on-premises data center and Microsoft’s cloud. It gives you the ability to bypass the public Internet, which can be slow and congested. This allows you to enjoy high-speed access with minimal latency, providing an optimal user experience while using applications that run in the cloud.
12) Is it possible to have the VM in a different region and have it connect to another region?
The interconnectivity between the two regions must be set up while creating the V-net (Virtual Network) to V-net (Virtual Network) connection.
13) Can the Azure Internal Load Balancer be assigned a public DNS or IP address?
NO, Azure doesn’t allow usage of an Internal Load Balancer on an IP address that belongs to the public network.
14) Explain Azure CDN – Content Delivery Network.
CDNs are a distributed network of servers that deliver web content efficiently to users. CDNs store cached content on edge servers at point-of-presences (POPs) close to end users in order to minimize latency.
By caching their content at strategically placed physical nodes across the globe, Azure Content Delivery Network (CDN) offers developers a global solution for delivering high-bandwidth content rapidly. The Azure CDN can also accelerate dynamic content, which cannot be cached, by leveraging various network optimizations. Route optimization to bypass Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), for example.
15) How to control the flow of traffic to resources connected to your VNet?
Using Network Security Groups (NSGs) deployed to individual subnets within a VNet or to NICs attached to a VNet.
16) Explain Azure Route network traffic.
By default, Azure routes traffic between subnets, connected virtual networks, on-premises networks, and the Internet. You can override the default routes by implementing either or both of the following options:
Route tables: With custom routing tables, you can create routes that direct where the traffic is routed.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) : Azure supports Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routes between virtual networks. BGP is a routing protocol that controls the flow of traffic between different autonomous systems. This means that you can use it in your infrastructure as a way of determining how traffic should be routed.
17) Define VPN gateway.
A VPN gateway is a resource in Azure that can be used to create and manage virtual private networks. The virtual network gateways use the VPN protocol, which provide secure connections over the internet.
There are two types of gateways: S2S and VNET-to-VNET.
An S2S VPN gateway connects one on-premises network to an Azure virtual network over an IPsec/IKE (Internet Key Exchange) tunnel, which is built using Windows Server 2012 R2 or higher.
A VNET-to-VNET VPN gateway provides connectivity between different Azure virtual networks over an IPSec/IKE tunnel. All traffic between the two environments passes through this single connection.
18) What is Application Security Groups?
Azure Application Security Groups is a firewall that can be applied to different applications in Azure. It allows you to control access and permissions by specifying the IP address range, port, and protocol.
ASGs work in the same way as NSGs, but focus on an application-oriented point of view. For example, ASGs are defined as targets and targets in NSGs are defined in the ASG.
19) What are the Advantages of using an application security group in Azure?
An application security group is a collection of one or more security rules that, when applied to an application, define the level of protection for that application. Security rules are created with a variety of predefined functions that allow you to specify who can access an app and what they can do.
Below are some advantages of ASG in azure:
- You do not need specific IP addresses. IP addresses are difficult to find because the configuration is distributed and the IPs change. You also don’t need to divide servers into a designated range of numbers.
- You won’t have to have separate rules for each VM if you use this configuration. The new security rules will automatically be applied to all the VMs in the Application Security Group.
- The setup is simple and makes sense because it’s based on the user’s workload usage.
20) What is Azure Front Door?
Azure Front Door is a free service that allows you to create web pages for your site and host them in the cloud. The service will allow you to link your domain name, upload your content, and publish it all from one location. This can be done with just a few clicks of the mouse. Once set up, if someone visits your domain name, they’ll be redirected to the new page on Front Door. It’s an easy way to get started with a website!
21) What is Azure Load Balancer?
Azure Load Balancer is a highly available and scalable service that distributes incoming traffic across multiple virtual machines (VMs). With the Load Balancer, you can configure health probes for your VMs, and it will automatically take corrective action by either forwarding traffic to a healthy VM or terminating unhealthy VMs. The Load Balancer is also compatible with Cloud Services, Virtual Machines, Web Apps, and API Apps.
Thank you for reading these Azure networking Interview Questions and answers. The skills taught in this Azure networking Interview Questions blog are the ones most desired by recruiters. We offer many Azure certification courses that can help you acquire certification, thus facilitating your career as your goal. You can find more information on Azure by reading our Azure Tutorial.
Our goal at Thinkcloudly is to help you succeed on your journey to becoming an Azure Professional, so in addition to these Azure Interview Questions, we have designed a curriculum that will equip you with everything you need to become one. Here are the details for Azure Certification Training.
We hope you will ask your questions in the comment section of this article so we can provide our thoughts and advice.
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